Causes of Testicular Cancer

Causes of testicular cancer - Risks and causes - Find out about the causes of testicular cancer and how you can reduce the risk of cancer. In the Uk around 2,300 people are diagnosed with testicular cancer every year. It is about 1 out of every 100 cancers (1%) diagnosed in men.

We don't know what causes testicular cancer. However several factors can increase your risk for getting it.
Causes of Testicular Cancer

Causes of Testicular Cancer: What are the risk factors

What can increase the risk of developing a disease are called risk factors. Different cancers have different risk factors. have one or more risk factors does not mean that you will get cancer. As testicular cancer is rare, small risk even if you have risk factors.

Risk factors for testicular cancer

  • Undescended testes (cryptorchidism)
The most important risk factors for testicular cancer undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). In the womb, the testicles develop in the abdomen of a baby boy. They usually move into the scrotum at birth or in the first year of life. If they move down later, or need surgery to take them, they are called undescended testes. In most males the testes move at the age of puberty. Some people have surgery to bring them down.
  1. Have an undescended testicle increases the risk of developing testicular cancer by 3 times
  2. Men where the condition is not corrected by the age of 13 years, the risk of testicular cancer increased up to 6 times

Abnormal cells in the testis (carcinoma in situ)
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) means that there are abnormal cells in the testicles. It's not cancer. There is no lump and usually no other symptoms. These abnormal cells are completely contained. Unlike cancer cells, they can not spread. If not treated the CIS developing into cancer is about half (50%) of the people who have it. CIS are most often found when a man has a testicular biopsy to check for infertility. This can be treated by removing the testicles to prevent testicular cancer develops.

Fertility problems
People with fertility problems have an increased risk of testicular cancer.
The main problem is:
  • low concentration of cement
  • sperm don't move as much as normal
  • a high proportion of abnormal sperm

We're still not sure why fertility problems and dealing with cancer related. Maybe because of the testicular cancer and fertility problems shares some of the same risk factors.

Causes of Testicular Cancer: Testicular cancer earlier

If you already have testicular cancer, the risk of developing cancer in the other testicle increased by 12 times. It is important to attend follow-up appointments after treatment. Supervision (surveillance) after the testicle is removed

Family history
The brothers or the boys that have testicular cancer have an increased risk of developing it.
  • Men whose father is the coping with cancer about 4 times more likely to develop
  • Men with relatives who have cancer about 8 times more likely to develop

Some of the increased risk caused by changes in certain genes. More research can lead to tests that identify people at higher risk of developing testicular cancer. Men who have family members with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cancer of the esophagus have an increased risk of testicular cancer.

Men born with abnormalities of the penis and urethra called Hypospadias are more likely to develop testicular cancer.

Inguinal Hernia
Men who have inguinal hernia more likely to develop testicular cancer. Inguinal hernia is a lump in the groin area caused by parts of the intestine (bowel) slipping through a weakness in the abdominal wall (belly).

Causes of Testicular Cancer: HIV or AIDS

Men with HIV or AIDS have an increased risk of testicular cancer. But most cases of testicular cancer that are not related to HIV positive.

Ethnic background
  • Cancer is more common in some social and racial groups. In the U.S., white males more than 4 times more than black men to get testicular cancer
  • In the Uk, white people have a risk of testicular cancer is higher than men from other tribes

We don't know why this is.

Calcium spots on the testicles (testicular microlithiasis)

Calcium spots on the testicles (testicular microlithiasis) is often found incidentally. Doctors usually diagnose with an ULTRASOUND scan of the handle when checking for symptoms such as pain or swelling.

It is difficult to know how many men. It can affect between 2 and 6 out of every 100 people (2% to 6%).

For those who have it, there is an increased risk of developing cancer of the testicles indirectly. But the people who have a family with testicular cancer risk factors (such as undescended testes or fertility problems) have an increased risk.

There are no guidelines about how doctors should monitor you if you have calcium in the testicle. Your GP should talk through the situation with you. Then you can both make decisions based on what is best in your case.

If you have calcium and see no swelling in the testicles, see your doctor immediately.

People who are higher than average have an increased risk of testicular cancer.

Injury to the testicles

There is no relationship between sports injuries or strains and dealing with cancer. However, injuries often cause swelling and lump in the testicle, which can make tumors harder to spot.

If you have an injury of the testicles and swollen, go to the doctor to check.

Pregnancy factors
Between the 1940s and the early 1970s, used the doctor to prescribe a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES) to some pregnant women with a history of pregnancy problems. There has been a lot of research to see if exposure to DES in utero increase the risk of testicular cancer. However, a meta-analysis of the studies did not find significantly higher incidence of testicular cancer in DES exposed boys. There is a higher frequency of undescended testes birth DEC mother of boys. Undescended testes is a risk factor for testicular cancer, so there can be a direct link.

The man's mother had bleeding during pregnancy have a higher risk of developing testicular cancer. But people who have older brothers have lower risk.

Low birth weight can increase the risk of undescended testes. But it is not clear whether birth weight directly affects the risk of testicular cancer.

The twins have an increased risk of testicular cancer, especially if two of their children. But as testicular cancer is very rare the risk is still low.

There is no relationship between vasectomy and testicular cancer. Early research suggests a link, but this has been shown to be true.

Other causes
A story about potential causes of cancer that are often in the media. It is not always clear which ideas are supported by good evidence.

You may have heard about the possible causes, we do not include here. This is because there is no evidence about them or because the evidence is not clear.