Multiple Myeloma Orthobullets

Multiple myeloma orthobullets - The stage of myeloma - Staging is the medical way of describing a cancer, which involves parameters such as size, localization and incidence of malignant neoplasms. Knowing the stage of myeloma you need to assign the most effective treatment plan.
Multiple Myeloma Orthobullets

Staging of myeloma (plasmacytoma) begins with identifying symptoms. Myeloma can be asymptomatic, and symptoms of the disease. Patients who lack any symptoms of blood cancer, usually do not require treatment and may be under active medical supervision. Patients experiencing specific symptoms of the disease, are in need of skilled therapy.

Symptoms of myeloma include:
  • Hypercalcemia – the level of calcium in the blood above the upper limit of normal, or above a 2.75 mmol/l;
  • renal failure – increased creatinine levels in the blood;
  • anemia is low hemoglobin (Hb);
  • bone lesions (lytic damage, osteoporosis (thinning of the bones), compression fractures of the spine;
  • other – hyperviscosity syndrome, amyloidosis, and/or recurrent bacterial infections (more than two episodes per year).

Stages of plasmacytoma according to the staging system Durie-salmon

The system is based on 4 factors:
  • High levels of abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulin in blood/urine – indicates the presence of malignant plasma cells producing an abnormal protein.
  • High level of calcium in the blood may indicate active bone destruction. Because bones contain large amounts of calcium, their destruction leads to the release of calcium and increase its level in the blood.
  • The severity of bone lesions x – ray- several areas of damage that are visible on x-ray may be a symptom of an advanced stage of multiple myeloma.
  • The level of blood Hb – Hb carries oxygen in red blood cells. A low Hb level indicates anaemia, which can occur due to involvement of the bone marrow myeloma cells.

Multiple myeloma orthobullets: This system utilizes the above factors in order to classify myeloma into three stages. Stage I indicates the early development of the tumor, stage III – in the later stage.

Stage I Myeloma
The study detected a relatively small number of myeloma cells and also contains all of the following factors:
  • The Hb level slightly above normal;
  • on radiographs revealed no bone lesions (or there is only 1 lesion);
  • the level of calcium in the blood within normal limits;
  • the relatively low level of monoclonal immunoglobulin in blood or urine.

Stage II Myeloma
The examination revealed a moderate amount of myeloma cells. The value of all other factors is between I and III stage plasmacytoma.

Stage III Myeloma
An increased number of myeloma cells in the blood, and there is one or more of the following factors:
  • Low Hb level;
  • High level of calcium in the blood;
  • 3 or more area of bone destroyed by the malignant process;
  • A high level of monoclonal immunoglobulin in blood/urine.

Stage Plasmacytoma International Staging System
Multiple myeloma orthobullets - Today, this staging system is used more widely. The international staging system based on data about patients suffering from multiple myeloma received from around the world. Under this system the development of the disease is divided into three stages, each of which is determined by the levels of serum albumin and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) serum. After receiving the results of the tests, the treating doctor will explain in detail what they mean and what treatment options are available at this stage of the disease.