Multiple Myeloma Stages Life Expectancy

Multiple Myeloma Stages Life Expectancy

Multiple myeloma stages life expectancy - The life expectancy of patients with multiple myeloma tends to vary according to several factors. A variety of life expectancy of myeloma may be based on the prognostic information provided by the laboratory evidence of multiple myeloma. The doctor may also look at the survival rate of the median according to the stage of cancer to help determine the life expectancy. The indicators predict that this helps to determine the extent to which a tumor growth, the spread of the disease, the formation of tumor biology, response to therapy, and the health status of the individuals individually.

Determine the level of the outcome of the test early in the course of the disease is important, as it provides a baseline against the progression of the disease and the response to therapy can be measured. Many tests can be performed routinely in any laboratory, while the other can only be done in specialized laboratories or at the place of the research.

TestIndicationValues Indicating a More Favorable Prognosis
Beta 2-microglobulin (ß2-microglobulin or ß2-M)Higher levels reflect more extensive disease and poor kidney function<3 mg/mL
Albumin levelHigher levels may indicate a better prognosis≥3.5 g/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levelHigher levels indicate more extensive diseaseAge ≤60 yrs.: 100-190 U/L
Age >60 yrs.: 110-210 U/L
Freelite™ serum free light chain assayAbnormal results may indicate poor prognosis (also indicates risk of progression of MGUS or asymptomatic myeloma to symptomatic myeloma)Free light chain ratio
MGUS: 0.26-1.65
Asymptomatic myeloma: 0.125-8.0
Symptomatic myeloma: 0.03-32
Chromosome analysis (cytogenetic testing by either karyotyping or FISH)Presence of specific abnormalities may indicate poor prognosisAbsence of abnormalities
Gene expression profilingPresence of a specific group of genes can predict a low or high risk of early relapsePersonalized risk score
Table source:
See also: Multiple Myeloma Bone Lesions Prognosis

Multiple Myeloma Stages Life Expectancy

Myeloma (cancer of plasma cells) is a malignant disease of blood arising because of the failure of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. With this kind of cancer is not a single tumor, cancer cells are present in bone marrow, everywhere. When myeloma in the bones can develop around the lesions of different size, displacing healthy tissue and increasing the likelihood of fracture. The disease can be a cause of brittle bones (osteoporosis). Myeloma can sometimes be accompanied by a tumor outside the bone tissue, solitary plasmacytomas. In some cases, these tumors may be multiple. Usually, the disease occurs between the ages of 50 and 70 years.
See also: Multiple Myeloma Treatment Guidelines
Today, myeloma is considered an incurable disease, but with modern methods of treatment often fails to achieve complete remission, to relieve the patient from symptoms and improve quality of life. In recent years, thanks to better treatment life of patients significantly prolonged compared with the situation ten years ago. The disease could be brought to a state close to the chronic form, which can be treated with each recurrence.

1. Risk factors for Myeloma. Until now, scientists do not know neither the causes of myeloma nor the factors which might affect the prevention of disease. In some cases, to symptoms myeloma (sometimes for several decades before the discovery of the disease) in the blood of patients is detected an abnormal protein (M-component), which increases the risk of myeloma.

2. The symptoms of Myeloma. The symptoms of myeloma are different. The first signs of the disease include excessive fatigue, or severe inflammatory disease, myeloma is sometimes manifested by kidney failure. The most common symptom is a pain in the bones, most often it hurts the spine. It usually affects vertebrae, ribs, skull, pelvis and long bones of the extremities. Myeloma increases the likelihood of fracture at minimum load or even in its absence. The cause of back pain can be compression of the vertebrae (compressional fracture), and if the compressed the spinal canal, can also occur and paralysis.

Loss bones calcium can lead to hypercalcemia (increased calcium in blood plasma) and its combination with the M component in the blood can damage the kidneys. Disease, usually accompanied by anemia. There is also an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In the transition myeloma in symptomatic requiring treatment stage that causes symptoms is usually anemia, renal dysfunction, hypercalcemia, or bone pain.

3. Diagnosis of Myeloma. Typically, the myeloma is found incidentally, when explaining the causes of high ESR or anemia. To confirm the diagnosis and determine the nature of the disease is a biopsy of bone marrow revealed the presence of paraprotein (M-component). Are taking blood and urine tests, performed x-rays of the bones.

4. The treatment of Myeloma. If the disease has not spread, the content of calcium in the blood is within the normal range, changes of the bone are missing and renal function is not impaired, treatment can be postponed and simply control the condition. In this case, we are talking about asymptomatic myeloma. The patient is advised to go for regular checkups. Premature treatment is accompanied by numerous side effects and does not prolong the patient's life.

Multiple Myeloma Stages Life Expectancy

Treatment is recommended to start only when the patient is suffering from obvious symptoms of disease or during the examination detected functional disorders in the body, for example, changes in the bones or renal dysfunction. Modern treatment methods provide a combination of various drugs, the therapy is selected individually taking into account the age of the patient and potential comorbidities. Most often used for the treatment of cortisone in high doses in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs, including the newest anticancer drugs for the treatment of myeloma Bortezomib, Thalidomide its derivative Lenalidomide.

In the treatment of myeloma, the important role played by supportive therapy. To relieve pain in the bones are assigned to strong painkillers if needed, radiation therapy. Appointed by drugs that strengthen bone tissue. An important role in strengthening bones plays physical activity. To prevent infections should take the medication with antimicrobial action.

If the patient is not yet 70 years old and he is in good physical form, first he has taken his own stem cells, and then intensive therapy (autologous transplant). This treatment is performed as the final stage, preceded by other aforementioned methods.

Almost always myeloma can be treated at home or outpatient. During treatment, lasting several months, the patient's condition and the effectiveness of treatment are carefully monitored. Usually, this takes the blood test for the M component. Therapy allows you to track the disease and to achieve remission. If the disease starts to progress significantly, treatment resume.

Young patients with unfavorable prognosis can be performed allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this treatment of myeloma is assigned very rarely. In single plasmacytoma is only radiation therapy, in the absence of primary myeloma in the bone marrow.