Prognosis For Multiple Myeloma Cancer

Prognosis For Multiple Myeloma Cancer

Prognosis for multiple myeloma cancer - Multiple Myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cell in the bone marrow. You already Know this in articles about the previous multiple myeloma. Typically, plasma cells are part of the immune system. They produce immunoglobulins (antibodies) that help to combat infections. In multiple myeloma, abnormal cells in the bone marrow multiply too quickly. They take too much space in the bone marrow and prevent the normal production of other blood cells, such as red and white blood cells. Multiple myeloma plasma Cells also produce a large number of abnormal immunoglobulins, which cannot fight infections and can cause kidney damage.

An abnormal type of protein called Paraprotein and can be produced from any type of immunoglobulin. The most common are IgG (50%) and IgA (20%), by 20% and the type  "Light Chain" which is part of the antibodies. The Rest consists of a mixture of myeloma IgM, IgD, and IgE, while only 1 in 10000 is non-secretory, which has malignant cells in the bone marrow that do not produce any protein. Also, know about Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Rash?

The Statistics that CancerOz today know for multiple myeloma, events around the world are around 4 cases in 100,000 people. Prognosis for multiple myeloma cancer - In Australia, approximately 1200 new patients are diagnosed with multiple myeloma every year. Multiple myelomas affect men more than women. This is generally a disease in the elderly, most patients diagnosed at approximately 60 years of age. Multiple myelomas rarely occur before the age of 40 years. Multiple Myeloma is found more frequently in black African populations and is rare in Asian populations.

How is The Development of Multiple Myeloma

There are a number of multiple myeloma associations. Most are observed, not explained. Jobs that may be associated with a higher risk of multiple myeloma are included in agriculture, wood processing and any work involving exposure to petroleum products. In addition, exposure to high-level ionizing radiation may affect the development of multiple myeloma.

A factor that has been associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma is the clear presence of the monoclonal gammopathy with indefinite significance (MGUS) in the blood. This is a condition seen in about 3-5% of people over 80 years of age. This is usually benign and is often considered non-cancerous, but the presence of MGUS has a risk of 1-1.5% per year to develop active myeloma. The Spread of tumors in multiple myeloma is usually limited to bones and bone marrow. Rarely, tumors can spread in the spleen, lymph nodes or other organs.

There are three main characteristics of multiple myeloma, namely bone destruction, bone marrow infiltration, and kidney disorders. The Following is an explanation of each main character of the disease:
  • The Destruction of Bones. The Expansion of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow causes normal bone damage. This causes bone pain and can cause fractures in which the bones have weakened.
  • Bone marrow Infiltration. The Bone Marrow is infiltrated by plasma cells. This means that normal blood cells cannot be produced, leading to a decrease in the number of red blood cells (anemia, white blood cells (neutropenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia). Patients with multiple myeloma present an increased risk of infection, white blood.
  • Kidney Disorders. The Kidneys can be destroyed in multiple myeloma in several ways. Bone Destruction by plasma cells causes an increase in calcium concentrations in the blood (hypercalcemia), which is dangerous for the kidneys. In addition, abnormal immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells can be stored in renal tubules and may cause injury. Overall, renal insufficiency occurs in approximately one-quarter of patients with multiple myeloma.

Prognosis For Multiple Myeloma Patient

There are a number of identified characteristics associated with a weak prognosis for multiple myeloma, i.e. older to diagnosis, poor performance status, anemia or decreased platelet count in the presentation, renal insufficiency and Increase in Microglobulin B2.

Prognosis for multiple myeloma cancer - In General, approximately 15% of patients will die within 3 months of diagnosis, with a subsequent mortality rate of 15%. The Causes of death include the development of myeloma, renal insufficiency or sepsis (excessive infection). With the help of treatment, the average survival is about 5 years. One in ten patients will have a very slow journey with the gradual development of the disease.

Treatment depends on the stage and shape of the myeloma, but most people need systemic chemotherapy and symptomatic supportive treatment.

1. Chemotherapy. Standard chemotherapy treatment Regimens for multiple myeloma include alkylation agents (Melphalan, cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil) and prednisone that are administered for 4 to 7 days every 4-6 weeks. It continues from one to two years.

In patients below 65 years of age who are declared healthy, the autologous bone marrow transplantation is a standard choice of treatment. It involves the chemotherapy of  "induction " of 3-6 months, which is designed to reduce the number of myeloma cells in the body and to remove the cells of the mnemonic blood. Healthy bone marrow stem Cells are then  "harvested" from the patient's blood, before administering a high dose of intensive chemotherapy to kill the remaining cancerous cells. Stem Cells harvested by the patient are then returned to the patient to  "save " The bone marrow discharged.

2. Supportive Care. Care Support includes treatment of anemia, pathological fractures, bone pain (e.g. radiotherapy), strengthening of the frame (vitamin D, calcium and fluoride), treatment of electrolyte disorders and antibiotics to Prevent Infections.

Prognosis for multiple myeloma cancer - In addition, myeloma treatment may involve one or a combination of the following: active monitoring, corticosteroids, targeted therapy, radiotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Little Real-world evidence is available to illustrate the latest trends in treatment costs and results for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Compared with multiple myeloma patients who were diagnosed in previous years, those diagnosed after 2010 had higher rates of use of new therapies and better survival results; Patients diagnosed in 2012 were 1.25 times more likely to survive 2 years than those diagnosed in 2006. Patients with multiple myeloma experienced increased survival during the study period with a 2-year survival gap between patients with multiple myeloma and the corresponding control level of 3% per year.

The total Cost of patients with this disease has increased for many years in all health services. However, the relative contribution of drug costs has remained quite stable since 2009, despite the new therapies coming on the market. The Results of this study confirm clinical data, showing a paradigm shift in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the last decade, which is associated with substantial survival gains. Future Studies should focus on the impact on new specific agents on the patient's outcomes.