Stem Cell Transplant for Multiple Myeloma Life Expectancy

Stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma life expectancy - multiple myeloma stem cell transplant survival rate - stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma - If there is a disease which most clearly demonstrates the recent improvements in the treatment of cancer, is multiple myeloma. Advances in biotechnology have allowed scientists to identify several genetic and chromosomal abnormalities that underlie diseases, and at the same time, to promote the development of more effective and less toxic drugs. Although there is still no ways to treat myeloma, a variety of treatments allow to achieve long-term remission, and people who were once given two or three years, and now live full and successfully manage their condition for five to seven years and some live much longer.
Stem Cell Transplant for Multiple Myeloma Life Expectancy

What is Multiple Myeloma? The word "myeloma" comes from the Greek myeloma (bone marrow) and oma (tumor). The title contains the word "multiple" because this type of tumor is found in many places in the bone marrow. The cause of the disease is unknown. Myeloma originates in the plasma cells - white blood cells in the bone marrow called B lymphocytes, which differentiate in response to the presence of viruses and bacteria (pathogens) in the body. Normally, plasma cells produce different antibodies to fight each type of pathogen invading the body. Thus, whenever a pathogen enters the body, plasma cells are activated, reproducing in large numbers, and creating a set of antibodies to rid the body of invasive microorganisms.

Multiple Myeloma Stem Cell Transplant Survival Rate

Stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma life expectancy - Myeloma cells are abnormal plasma cells that multiply without any apparent reason, producing substances that inhibit the normal function of the brain and displace the normal blood components in the bone marrow. Such violations of the functions of blood in myeloma can be reduced ability to carry oxygen, red blood cells, the ability of leukocytes to fight infection and impaired clotting function of platelets.
See also: Multiple Myeloma Stage 4 Life Expectancy
Therefore, people with myeloma may be anemia, reduced resistance to disease, unexplained bruises and bleeding. Instead create functioning antibodies, myeloma cells generate excessive amounts of abnormal proteins called M proteins, which can lead to kidney damage as well as suppress normal immune function.
As soon as the myeloma cells accumulate in the bone marrow, they release enzymes that increase the speed of bone destruction (resorption) and slow the rate of bone formation. As a result, the calcium contained in the bone tissue, secreted into the blood, where high levels can cause weakness, confusion and further damage to the kidneys.

During the disease can also develop metastases beyond the brain and bone - that is, the tumor can spread from the bone marrow to other parts of the body including the liver, spleen and soft tissues. Myeloma, thus, creates havoc in the bones and kidneys, and in severe cases, the liver, spleen, and lungs, as M-protein and plasma cells accumulate in various organs.

Risk factors for myeloma: There are too few confirmed facts, in order to talk about preventing myeloma. The most common risk factors are out of our control. They include the following:
  • Age. Myeloma rarely occurs in people under 35 years of age and is most common in people aged 65 years and older.
  • Ethnicity. The disease is almost two times more common in African-Americans and light-skinned people. This disease is least common in Asians.
  • Paul. Slightly more than 55% of people with myeloma are men.
  • Genetics. Having a close relative with myeloma may increase the risk, but the family myeloma is rare.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy unknown origin (MHNG). This is a benign condition that affects plasma cells, is often detected accidentally during a routine blood test. Its frequency increases with age. MGNG not require treatment, but provided that when it is detected the person should be under careful examination and observation for a long time since 25% of people who have discovered MGNG eventually develop myeloma.
See also: Multiple Myeloma Blood Test Results Explained

Stem Cell Transplant for Multiple Myeloma

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma - In the early stages of development of multiple myeloma does not always cause symptoms. But your doctor may have a suspicion in connection with a sudden fracture or change the results of a routine blood test. Most often disease indicates itself with symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, back pain, frequent urination, constipation, and susceptibility to infections. In any case, the following laboratory tests and medical imaging can rule out or confirm the presence of multiple myeloma and to determine the stage of the disease:
  • blood tests that determine the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, the presence of M-protein, and the level of antibodies, proteins beta-2 microglobulin and albumin, calcium and creatinine ( an indicator of kidney damage).
  • a urine test that measures the levels of another abnormal protein, called a protein Bence-Jones.
  • x-ray examination to check for damaged or broken bones.
  • bone marrow biopsy for the detection of myeloma cells.

Studies have shown that there are several different types of myeloma cells with different genetic and chromosomal abnormalities that cause various forms of diseases, which respond to different types of treatment. Tests for these disorders are used to identify 25% to 30% of people with myeloma, who are at particular risk and likely require early aggressive treatment.

Myeloma, which is detected before the symptoms started - with the level of Beta-2 microglobulin only slightly higher and albumin level is slightly lower than usual - usually described as a dormant or smoldering disease. Studies have not shown that the medication at this stage, life expectancy increases, so a common practice is "watchful waiting" - monitoring the patient in close collaboration with the attending physician, medical examinations, and laboratory tests to determine whether the disease is progressing.

Stem Cell Transplant for Multiple Myeloma Life Expectancy

What is stem cell transplantation? Although it is not an independent method of treatment, stem cell transplantation is the mainstay of treatment of myeloma, especially for younger (ages 65 to 70), healthy patients. Stem cells have the ability to regenerate healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets so they can be used to help people tolerate chemotherapy in high doses for a sufficient time to kill cells myeloma - a strategy that also destroys most healthy components of the blood.

After the primary treatment to reduce the myeloma cells, the patient is assigned to treatment using drugs that stimulate the production of their own blood stem cells. These stem cells live in small amounts in all of us, and they turn into healthy red cells, white cells, and platelets. After a few days, the patient is in the process leukapheresis in which blood is diverted from the vein through a machine that removes the stem cells and returns the blood to another vein. This process sometimes referred to as the collection of stem cells may take several hours and may need to be repeated several times. As a rule, a sufficient number of stem cells for transplantation are collected for two treatments and then they are frozen.

After the patient has undergone chemotherapy, which kills all the blood cells - the cancerous myeloma cells and the healthy cells - and cause all the known side effects: hair loss, nausea, diarrhea and fatigue, the stored healthy stem cells are poured back into the blood. If the treatment is effective, the stem cells begin the formation of the healthy circulatory system free of myeloma cells. At this time the patient usually detected anemia and vulnerability to infections, since it is the bloodstream does not have enough white blood cells fighting an infection. Thus, while blood cells are in the process of growth and development - a process that usually takes about two weeks - the patient will be assigned to the blood transfusion, growth factors, and antibiotics to prevent anemia and infections.

The Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

Once the disease reaches stage II, treatment is required to alleviate the symptoms and reduce the number of myeloma cells. There are no standard protocols: the majority of patients receive different types of drugs at different stages of the disease, depending on their age, symptoms, General physical condition, risk factors and preferences in treatment.

If you are aged 65-70 years and does not have other major diseases, such as diabetes or serious damage to the organs, it is generally recommended that stem cell transplantation. If for any reason you are not satisfied stem cell transplantation, you will start with medical therapy, which will continue as long as the disease does not go into a stage of complete remission (no evidence of myeloma) or when symptoms of myeloma will go low. After the start of treatment, you will undergo a survey or progression of the disease.
See also: Multiple Myeloma and Kidney Failure Life Expectancy
For re-treatment, there are several options. Second stem cell transplantation may be effective in selected patients. Drugs or their combinations that were used for the first time can work well again so the treatment can be revised or introduced new drugs. Today there are many clinical trials, which are trials of new drugs to treat myeloma.

Multiple myeloma stem cell transplant survival rate - Additional therapy may be needed to counteract the effects of the disease and the consequences of medical treatment. Most people with myeloma receive bisphosphonates to slow bone resorption, and many are taking drugs to thin the blood to prevent blood clots. Bone pain can be treated with radiation therapy, anemia treatment possible with the help of epoetin (Epogen, Procrit), which stimulates the production of red blood cells and reduces the need for blood transfusion.