Lung Cancer in Dogs (Symptoms and Treatment)

Lung Cancer in Dogs (Symptoms and Treatment)

Lung cancer in dogs - It may be that some people who keep dogs do not believe in this, and that is true of the fact. This time we will discuss lung cancer in dogs symptoms, their life expectancy, diagnosis using x ray, cancer treatment, and stages of lung cancer in dogs.

The lung is the essential organ of respiration, whose main function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream and to release carbon dioxide from the blood to the atmosphere. There are two types of lung cancer diagnosed in dogs. The first is primary lung cancer which is defined as lung tumors that originate in the lung tissue. The second type that is the cancer of the lung is metastatic cancer that originates in other parts of the body, such as a bone of the leg, the mouth, or the thyroid gland, but has spread to the lungs through the bloodstream.

Primary lung cancer, or tumors originating in the lung, are relatively uncommon in dogs (less than 1% of all cancers in dogs), although the number has been increasing. It is not clear whether the increase is due to a real increase is in the number of cases or simply improved skills to diagnose Comments These tumors. tumors of the lung primary are almost always malignant and are usually carcinomas (often adenocarcinomas), although can be hemangiosarcomas. Usually present as a large mass of insulation in the lung visible on a chest radiograph.

Carcinomas develop from epithelial tissues in the lungs. They can be derived mainly from the own lung tissue, or the airway or the bronchioles. lung cancer canine is aggressive and frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and tissues of the chest region. Adenocarcinoma has a tendency to metastasize (spread) to the central nervous system. Adenocarcinomas are classified according to their location (for example bronchial, bronchoalveolar, or carcinoma alveolar).

A system of classification based on histological pattern predominant can be used to categorize most of the neoplasms as primary adenocarcinoma of the lung, squamous cell carcinomas, carcinoma anaplastic, or carcinomas bronchioloalveolar. Only the type of neoplastic cell and the presence or absence of metastatic disease have been found to be of value as prognostic indicators.

Comments on these are the lung tumors metastatic spread from a primary tumor in another part of the body. The lungs are a common place for other types of cancer spread, as with dogs diagnosed with bone cancer. tumors of the metastatic lung are generally found in multiples, not as a single mass. Keep in mind that dogs with multiple masses lung can be the result of a fungal infection and not cancerous. That is why it is imperative to obtain an accurate diagnosis if the mass lung is found in your dog.

Lung cancer in dogs causes: The reason why a dog develops cancer is not usually immediate. Cancer is a genetic damage is not lethal to cells (mutations in the DNA). Mutations have been found in lung cancer canine with the changes in the regulation of cell death, and divert a replacement of the standard. Little is known about the exact causes of Comments These mutations, however, some chemicals may be involved in the initiation or promotion of cancers. There may be a genetic factor in the game also.

The environment in which he lives, the guide dog is an important factor to the potential threat of development of lung tumors. As with humans, second-hand smoke in the home the dog due to an owner of smoking is correlated with an increased incidence of lung cancer in dogs.

According to the Centers for Control and Prevention of Diseases, more than 126 million Americans who do not smoke are exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes, vehicles, workplaces and public places. This exposure causes Thousands of lung cancer and heart disease deaths among nonsmokers each year, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of California.

Making the leap from the effects of second-hand smoke on human beings to Comment on their effects on the pets is not a big one, says the veterinarian Carolynn MacAllister of Oklahoma State University. "There have been a number of scientific papers recently that have reported the threat to the health of second-hand smoke poses to pets," said MacAllister. "Second-hand smoke has been associated with oral cancer and lymphoma in cats, lung and nasal cancer in dogs, as well as lung cancer in birds." Dogs living in a home with smokers have a risk of 60% of developing this form of cancer.

Also, studies have shown that dogs with medium and short noses are more susceptible to lung cancer, "Due to its short critical nostrils are not so effective in the accumulation of the carcinogens from second-hand smoke inhaled," said MacAllister. "This results in more carcinogens that lead to the lungs." Asbestos can also be a cause of a specific form of lung cancer, called mesothelioma, as it is in humans.

Risk factors: Dogs males and females About contract lung cancer at the same speed. There may be a slight increase in the risk is associated with living in an urban area. There is No preparation known with regard to race and the development of lung tumors. However, the majority of lung cancer is seen in medium-sized and large-sized dogs and is diagnosed more frequently in dogs of advanced age. The average age of diagnosis is 11 years. Breeds with short muzzle are exposed to cigarette smoke at home have twice the risk of contracting lung cancer as breeds of the medium-sized or long nose are exposed to a similar amount of cigarette smoke.

Lung Cancer in Dogs Symptoms

The symptoms of lung cancer are coughing (which may produce phlegm or blood), exercise intolerance (lethargy), loss of weight or loss of appetite and other respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.

The clinical sign characterized as abnormal more common in dogs with lung cancer is a chronic cough. Usually, this is a non-productive cough, which means that the dog is not coughing with mucus or fluid. Occasionally pets will cough up small amounts of blood or phlegm. If the tumor is large and is causing compression of the trachea or the main airway, the animal may experience difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Other causes of shortness of breath associated with lung cancer include accumulation of fluid around the lungs, known as pleural effusion, and involvement cancerous widespread in the lungs, leaving little normal lung tissue.

The clinical signs can also be vague and non-specific airway. Approximately 25 percent of pets with lung cancer may not show any clinical sign of disease at all. sometimes dogs with lung cancer are limp or show signs of lameness. This can occur due to the spread of tumors to the bones or due to a secondary effect that the tumor has on bone growth. The condition final results in bone growth and the excessive swelling of the extremities, and is known as osteopathy hypertrophic. Several other conditions can cause clinical signs similar to the exams those observed in animals with lung cancer which include heart failure, pneumonia, metastatic cancer, infection of the parasite of the heart, fungal infection, worms of the lungs, the trachea or collapse.

Lung cancer treatment for dogs: In order to accurately and definitively the diagnosis of primary lung cancer in your dog, your veterinarian will perform a physical examination, as well as the order of several tests. A complete medical history and a physical exam are important because it will establish a list of possible diagnoses. A physical examination may reveal abnormal lung sounds muffled, or in your dog roommates may indicate dyspnea (difficulty or labored breathing or shortness of breath). A veterinarian will also listen to the heart to rule out, or rule out heart disease as the likely cause of the symptoms. Many animals with fungal infections will also have enlarged lymph nodes or skin lesions. After the physical examination, your veterinarian may order any or all of the following tests and procedures to help determine the correct diagnosis.

Complete blood count - a CBC evaluates the red and white blood cells, as well as platelets. The results of this test are normal often in dogs with cancer of the lung, but it will help rule out infectious causes of the symptoms.

Biochemical profile - evaluates blood sugar, blood proteins, and electrolytes, as well as providing information about liver and kidney function. It is useful for the vet to have a general assessment of the health, and can determine the need for further diagnostic testing.

Analysis of urine - is part of a comprehensive evaluation of laboratory and gives a better indication of kidney function than the biochemical profile alone.

The chest X Rays- X-rays of the chest are probably the most important tool to make a preliminary diagnosis of lung cancer. X-rays are read for the presence of lung tumors, fluid in the thoracic cavity, the size of the heart and associated blood vessels, and an evaluation of the lung tissue. What is generally found in an x-ray depends on the type of lung cancer. cancer of the lung, are frequently located in the caudal (towards the posterior end of the pulmonary lobes PET), however, they can be located in any lobe of the lung and are usually a single mass in the lungs, unless the tumor has spread.

Tumors of the metastatic lung are frequently found in multiples and invade a variety of pulmonary lobes. However, once in a while an extension of the metastatic tumor from another part of the body may appear as a single mass in the lungs. If your dog has a fever and has been traveling to the south of the United States, the masses in the lungs could be due to the fungal infection and can be treated with drugs.

A CT scan may be ordered instead of or in addition to an x-ray standard. Ct scans provide greater clarity and reveal more details than the conventional screening x-rays. It is one of the best and fastest tools for examining the chest because it provides detailed images, the cross-section of all types of tissue. It is often the preferred method for the diagnosis of many types of cancers, including lung since the image allows a physician to confirm the presence of a tumor and measure its size, exact location and the degree of involvement of the tumor with the surrounding tissues.

Abdominal X-rays or abdominal ultrasound - imaging studies of the abdomen may not be necessary in all cases, but the evaluation of other organs is a good screening test for the presence of pulmonary metastases from a primary tumor to other sites. Although many tumors spread from other sites to lungs, primary lung tumors can spread through the lungs, as well as to other parts of the body.

Fine needle aspiration of the lung mass - If there is a mass that is large enough and close enough to the chest wall, an aspirate of the mass can be attempted with a hypodermic needle and a syringe. This involves passing a needle through the chest wall and inserting it into the mass, then gently creating suction on the syringe to remove cells for microscopic evaluation. This is a procedure fairly safe, but it must be done with the help of ultrasound to determine the exact location of the mass. may need to be sedated for this test the dog.

If the dog has a pleural effusion (abnormal accumulation of fluid) this can be removed safely and routinely from the chest and without ultrasound guidance. The extraction fluid may help the dog breathe more easily, as well as to provide fluid for analysis and possible diagnosis. Comments These methods can allow the doctor to make a diagnosis without conducting a more invasive procedure, but it should be noted that a sample aspirated with a fine needle is never as good as a piece of tissue for assessment of the biopsy.

Aspirate or bronchoscopy, transtracheal - aspirate transtracheal is a procedure in which fluid is sterile, is inserted into the trachea, and the fluid and cells are suctioned out. This can sometimes be another method to obtain a diagnosis. However, this is often more useful if there is evidence of lung disease widespread in place of a single mass. This test can be performed under light sedation.

A study bronchoscopy involves placing an endoscope into the trachea and lower respiratory tract. The inside of the airways can be examined by this method and the samples can also be obtained for analysis. masses of the individual in the lung tissue cannot be seen through this method, but a mass associated with one of the airways can be sampled using this technique.

The biopsy of the masses in lung - tissue samples from a lung mass are often the only definitive way to make a diagnosis of lung cancer and helps to determine the form of lung cancer that is. The most common procedure to obtain a sample of the mass is thoracotomy exploratory, which consists in opening surgically in the thoracic cavity. Often, the mass can be completely removed while performing this procedure. Therefore, the surgery may play a role in both diagnoses, as well as important therapeutic in the treatment of the disease.

A second possible way to obtain a biopsy of the lung is the mass by thoracoscopy. This procedure was performed with a scope, which is placed in the breast through a smaller incision that is used for the surgery. The endoscope is a long tube with a camera attached, roommates allow the visualization within the thoracic cavity. Depending on your location in mass, a biopsy can be taken using this method. However, it is unlikely that the mass can be removed using the scope. Finally, in certain cases, the ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This is the least intrusive way to obtain a biopsy, but it is not always the best way to diagnose the lung cancer as the size of the sample will be less than with a thoracoscopy and the procedure can be more risky for some dogs.

The diagnosis of metastatic lung cancer can be done with any of the above methods. However, it is generally accepted that if there is a known tumor somewhere in the body, and the masses are found in the lungs, it is presumed These are metastatic tumors and many of the invasive procedures for the diagnosis of the disease are not necessary. The surgical removal of the tumor is often the first step used to treat the lung cancer canine if the dog is otherwise in good health. Is the treatment of choice for dogs with primary lung tumors. However, depending on the size and location of the mass, complete or partial removal even may not be possible. If there is evidence of the involvement widespread, surgical removal is usually not an option.

In the majority of lung tumors primary individual, the lobe of the lung that is in play is totally removed with the mass. This is called a thoracotomy for the removal of the tumor and of the lung. Usually, the tumor is removed through the side of the thoracic cavity (lateral thoracotomy). In some cases, the breastbone must be divided (median sternotomy) so that the two lungs, left and right can be accessed. If necessary, the entire left lung can be removed in a given time, as the right lung will take care of the left. Your dog may not do as well if the entire right lung (all lobes) should be removed.

If surgery is not an option, chemotherapy may be used to slow the progression of the disease. Although, there is little evidence to show that chemotherapy is very effective in the majority of primary lung cancers, there are reports that some dogs are doing well (see the story of Snuggy). Both vinblastine and/or carboplatin are generally used as the drug of chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is sometimes used for the treatment of lung cancer in dogs Depending on the proximity of the lung tumor to the heart.

Metastatic lung cancer can be treated with radiation or chemotherapy. Surgical intervention is usually not recommended but may be possible depending on certain clinical criteria. If there are three or fewer lung nodules affected, surgery may be performed to remove Comments These in order to increase the life of your dog. This is done commonly with metastatic disease osteosarcoma. Survival times following conventional standard ranging from two months to two years, mainly depending on if cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or to other parts of the body before the surgery.

Because lung cancers are highly dependent on angiogenesis for Revisions to its growth and spread, antiangiogenic therapy may be useful for this condition. The studies of Cleary lung cancer in animals have shown that the greater the number of microvessels within the lung cancer, the worse the prognosis. inhibition of angiogenesis has been greatly slowed down the growth of lung cancer in animals. Researchers have shown that a drug mimicking the angiogenesis inhibitor natural, thrombospondin-1 can inhibit lung cancer in animals. A similar drug, called ABT-510, is now in trials of veterinary cancer, canine. Patients in humans, other anti-angiogenesis drugs have been used to treat lung cancer, Avastin Including, Neovastat, TNP-470, the escalating, and endostatin.

Because Avastin is not available for use in dogs at this time (in humans, the cost can run up to $ 100,000 per year), some veterinarians are prescribing chemotherapy, metronomic or low-dose with Deramaxx (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a chemotherapy drug oral, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan). They believe that this type of protocol chemotherapy works by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels, which is required for the new tumor growth, similar to the antiangiogenic therapy. this type of chemotherapy has not been investigated specifically for lung cancer in dogs. it has shown some benefit in delay of recurrence of hemangiosarcoma and soft tissue sarcomas in dogs. this protocol may be worth trying if other chemotherapy agents may not be helpful in the fight against this form of cancer.

Lung cancer in dogs prognosis: The prognosis is good for dogs with primary lung cancer presents with a single, small mass in their lungs that has not spread to lymph nodes or other tissues. In this group, it is expected that more than 50% live a year after the surgical removal of the mass. A recent study of 67 dogs diagnosed with primary lung cancer showed that the prognosis depends on several factors, such as the cancer histological type, grade, how advanced the cancer is and whether the animals had symptoms at the time of diagnosis The median overall survival of Comments These dogs was 1 year. Dogs with low-grade tumors had a median survival of 22 months, while dogs with higher grade tumors had a median survival of 6 months. Dogs showed symptoms that had a median survival of 8 months versus the 18 months in the comments without symptoms. After surgical resection wide of the lung mass, dogs with lung adenocarcinomas are reported to have a higher survival time means that the animals with other types of primary carcinomas of the lung.