Multiple Myeloma X Ray Findings

Multiple myeloma x ray findings - Multiple myeloma diagnosis and treatment policies to determine, urine tests, blood tests, bone marrow examination, bone X-ray examination and CT examination, MRI examination, PET examination, such as image inspection is performed (Table 1). The purpose of the inspection myeloma cells to check, as well as systemic organs about the presence of complications such as to verify yours.
Multiple Myeloma X Ray Findings

Multiple Myeloma X Ray Findings: Urine Test

Multiple myeloma of the patient's urine, the myeloma cells produce M protein of 1 to Ben Jones protein (BJP)is discharged for this protein, the presence of all of you. In conjunction with the renal function of the state such as all of you. 24 hours in the urine collected in the urine M protein such as the amount of to examine all urine tests may also be performed.

Multiple Myeloma X Ray Findings: Blood Test

Red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, platelets, such as number, measuring the hematopoietic function of the degree of disability will be examined. Or myeloma progression or kidney failure in order to investigate the immunoglobulin, the amount of M protein, the amount of LDH(lactate dehydrogenase), BUN (blood urea nitrogen), creatinine, calcium, albumin, β -2 microglobulins such as measured.

Bone Marrow Examination (Bone Marrow Aspiration, Bone Marrow Biopsy)

Figure 3 bone marrow puncture of the state. To confirm the diagnosis, a bone marrow harvesting(bone marrow puncture[this should not]) or bone marrow tissue(bone marrow biopsy then this should not only not]), and a microscope for myeloma cells and form will be examined. Bone marrow punctures the skin disinfection and local anesthesia of the Ilium(pelvic bone behind) and a fine needle is used to puncture the bone, in the bone marrow with a syringe by suction sampling (Figure 3). This bone marrow liquid contained in the cells of the shape and examined under a microscope. Bone marrow aspiration when there is a pain, this pain is local anesthesia is suppressed or not, is usually a transient pain in them. Bone marrow biopsy, iliac and or thick needle, bone marrow tissue to a small amount fishing. Cells on the surface of the out marker(the presence of a tumor or characteristic marks)of the examination of tumor cell type and maturity, chromosomal testing in grade one text should be enclosed in the appropriate comment syntax for the file format. Also, bone marrow and tissue other than the swelling(swelling) is seen in the case, and the organization of the cells harvested must be inspected.

X-ray, CT, MRI, PET scan

Figure 4 CT examination of the state. Multiple myeloma diagnosed with a systemic disease to spread and the bones to check the status of the inspection. The most common is also X-ray examination, whole body bone lesions and pathological fractures such as the presence or absence of all of you. Recently, CT scan and MRI by small bone lesions or myeloma cells spread about the diagnosis you can. CT, X-ray body using the internal drawing (Figure 4). MRI is magnetic is used. Contrast agent use if an Allergy is possible. Contrast dye allergies experienced doctors have.
See also: Multiple Myeloma Bone Lesions Prognosis
From the bone marrow that exist outside the lesion to evaluate for the PET examination can also be conducted. PET scan is glucose cancer to gather in nature and use of glucose, similar to FDG and the substance and a radioactive isotope(18 F)to the bound drug using the cancer lesion, presence or absence and the position will be examined.

Multiple Myeloma X Ray Findings: Disease Type Classification

Multiple myelomas is "myeloma cells" mainly in the bone marrow would continue to the body a variety of symptoms to illness. Myeloma cells by the disease, multiple myeloma in addition to the various disease types. Each of the disease to distinguish disease types(disease type)to know that this is advancing the treatment it is very important. Disease type classification of the International Myeloma Working Group(IMWG: International Myeloma Working Group)by the diagnostic criteria have been widely used. Bone marrow abnormal plasma cells(myeloma cells)the presence or absence of the blood urine M protein, the presence of organ damage(hypercalcemia, anemia, renal failure, bone lesions, etc.) depending on the existence of a classification, treatment start time, such as achievements. Typical disease type includes the following.

Of Uncertain Significance Single Clonal Gamma Globulin Blood Disease
(MGUS: Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance): "System Gas" referred to a type of plasma cell tumors in. M protein and bone marrow in myeloma cells is less type of organ failure, treatment is not necessary. Myeloma progress may be periodically inspected.

Smoldering Multiple Myeloma(asymptomatic myeloma)

Myeloma cells and M protein is over a certain amount to increase, but the symptoms are almost no organ failure if not accompanied by. Aggressive treatment is not performed a regular inspection.

Multiple Myeloma (symptomatic myeloma): Blood and urine M protein and myeloma cells is increased, myeloma, and organ failure if you have multiple myeloma and diagnosed. The most common type, drug therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autologous transplantation)of treatment. In General, the multiple myeloma was diagnosed if the treatment is autologous transplantation can be below the age of 65 patients, 66 years or more vital organs such as the failure of for transplantation, do patients in the different treatment policy is selected.

Solitary plasmacytoma: Bone and tissue other than bone to myeloma cells of (tumor), but organ failure is not. Tumors where radiation therapy is performed.

Plasma cell leukemia: Peripheral (or I would) in the blood of myeloma cells to multiply in.Lymph node and organ enlargement such as bone marrow outside of the lesion is frequently observed in organ failure progression in a state that is much appreciated. Treatment of multiple myeloma treatment policy in accordance with doing.

Systemic amyloidosis: Amyloidosis and the M protein is broken down amyloid, called an abnormal protein occurs in various tissues and organs to accumulate and organ failure disease. Systemic amyloidosis, the originally abnormal plasma cells increases, the heart, lungs, skin, tongue, thyroid gland (such as not), intestinal tract, liver, kidneys, blood vessels the whole body, including the organs of amyloid accumulate. Therefore, the amyloid protein production severs, for a tumor of plasma cells to decrease treatment is required. Below the age of 65 at implantation conditions in the case of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combined with melphalan mass therapy. Transplant conditions not met or if the 66-year-old more than in the case of MD therapy (melphalan+dexamethasone)or bortezomib, thalidomide, using this agent for treatment.

POEMS Syndrome (Crow-Fukase [owl, full cassette] syndrome, Takatsuki disease)

POEMS syndrome, the main symptom in multiple neuritis(Polyneuropathy)by peripheral neuropathy, organ enlargement(Organomegaly), endocrine abnormalities(Endocrinopathy),M protein blood disease(Monoclonal Protein), skin symptoms (Skin Changes)of the initial gathered syndrome,in addition to edema (the law), chest ascites(you can just wipe your.) as well as systemic disease. Japan relatively often, a lapse is chronic in prognosis more than 10 years and by a variety of symptoms, especially peripheral neuropathy when the patient's activities of daily living(ADL) significantly reduced. POEMS syndrome is a worldwide rare disease and the treatment guidelines do not exist, and no treatment if the condition is to progress, depending on the circumstances, radiation, cytotoxic anticancer drugs(anticancer drugs: alkylating agents)administration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is performed. In the future, myeloma analogous medications (bortezomib, thalidomide, it)treatment by the example of accumulation is expected.

Stage of Disease (stage)
Disease stage and cancer progression showing the extent of the words in English that use"Stage (stage)"also known as. Such as a description, The stage and the word are used, it can not. Staging stage is the Roman Numeral represented.

Multiple myeloma stages of disease, tumor volume, and after the passage of the determining factors (prognostic factors), the I ~ III of 3 can be divided into two stages. Especially serum albumin and serum Beta -2 microglobulin is an important prognostic factor, serum albumin value is low, or when the serum β -2 microglobulin value is high, then of course(prognosis) is often not considered. This is based on the International staging system (ISS: International Staging System), The International myeloma working group from the advocate (see Table 2). This classification is multiple myeloma I ~ III divided into normal, if it is close to stage I disease, the progression according to stage II, stage III and proceed.
Table 2 multiple myeloma international staging system (ISS:International Staging System)

Multiple Myeloma X Ray Findings: Prognostic Factors
Multiple myeloma on the passage of the age and presence of complications, disease type, disease stage, etc is affected. Other prognostic factors are called indicators, and treatment for reactive and then of course(prognosis)to guess the method used.

International staging according to the blood test, the albumin var globulin value is high, then the passage is not well considered. Also, chromosome abnormalities especially, when you have an arm of chromosome 13 and chromosome 17 abnormalities, No. 4 and No. 14 chromosome translocation(chromosome part of me about it) that if there is such, then of course not that is known.The actual treatment policy in determining such prognostic factors have also to be considered is important. The passage and guess if more aggressive treatment opt for such as patients, the optimal treatment decision that is important.