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Stage 4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Prognosis

Stage 4 squamous cell carcinoma prognosis - Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the head and neck and the sixth cause of cancer at the global level. Approximately 600,000 cases are diagnosed every year. Although squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck (HNSCC) includes salivary glands and paranasale sinus tumors, reduced incidence and different behaviors, they made them excluded from This study.

There are many risk factors associated with HNSCC, however, alcohol and tobacco consumption is the most important and is related to 75% of the total tumors. Stage 4 squamous cell carcinoma prognosis - However, recent studies have shown that the association between the human oncogenic virus of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (especially serotype 16) and SCC is the cause of oropharyngeal cancer, especially in the tonsils and the base of the tongue. Currently, the HNSCC events linked to HPV have increased in younger populations.

The survival rate of HNSCC over the last 20 years has increased considerably. The development of new diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, radiotherapy (RT) and Chemotherapy (CMT) are tools that contribute to achieving the best results. Stage 4 squamous cell carcinoma prognosis - In recent decades, head and neck surgeons have concentrated their efforts on reducing morbidity, improving the quality of life and functional status of patients. [5] The development of reconstructive surgery techniques, such as free microvascular folds, encourages us to transfer any kind. Tissue (skin, muscle, nerve) to the surgical defect after resection.

Treatment options depend on the location of neoplasm, tumor stage and free oncological survival expectations. Surgery is still the main therapy, in most cases accompanied by postoperative RT. However, some advanced cases should be treated with CMT with Cetuximab. The overall survival rate varies between 40-60% after 5 years of treatment.
Stage 4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Prognosis

Stage 4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Prognosis

Each year, more than 50 000 patients are diagnosed with HNSCC and approximately 12 000 regional diseases develop or metastasis in the United States. Almost 60% of patients are diagnosed from the first moment as stage III/IV. From 30% to 50% of them have developed a local disease that will develop a recurrence and 20-30% of them will present distant metastasis. (See Also: Survival Rate of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in The Lymph Node)

Treatment options for patients with irreversible metastasis are reduced to palliative care therapy, while the primary endpoint of patients with resectable tumors is curative, improves overall survival, achieve better results Functional and relieves symptoms. Stage 4 squamous cell carcinoma prognosis - If the aerodigestive channels involved can determine many complications, such as dysphagia, airway obstruction and speech impediment. Compromised skin produces chronic infections, painful fistulas and inodore. These are some of the reasons that define social isolation and familiarity, even if they do not have a quality of life (QOL).

The reason for the high incidence of the appellant is still unknown. While smokers ' rates decreased, the incidence of HPV + patients increased. It appears that HPV + cases have low levels of secondary tumors and are not related to typical cancer fields. However, it has been found that there is a relationship between the high risk of recurrence and tumor progression induced by radiofrecvenţei with HPV + cases over a long period of time. Appeals differ from primary tumors, because they are usually more infilcative and multifocal, very common to find disseminated tumors outside radiation and surgical areas. Despite attempts to find a wide margin of resection, the presence of fibrosis and anatomical distortions makes it extremely difficult to obtain free margins.