What Is Nasopharynx Cancer

What Is Cancer Of The Nasopharynx Symptoms

Nasopharynx cancer causes - What is nasopharynx cancer? Nasopharyngeal (nasopharynx) cancer is cancer that begins in the nasopharynx, at the top of the neck behind the nose and near the base of the skull. To understand cancer nasopharynx, it is good to know about the structure and function of the nasopharynx.

The nasopharynx is the upper part of the throat (pharynx), which is located behind the nose. This is the space as a box of about 1 ½ inch on each side. It is located just above the soft part of the roof of the mouth (soft palate) and only behind the nasal passages. Nasopharyngitis function as a respiratory tract from the nose to the throat (and finally to the lungs).

Some types of tumors may develop in nasopharyngitis. Some of these tumors are benign (not cancer), others are malignant (cancer). It is important to discuss what type of tumor you have with your doctor.

1. Benign nasopharyngeal tumor. Benign nasopharyngeal tumors are quite rare and tend to develop in children and young adults. These tumors do not propagate to other parts of the body and generally do not endanger life. They include tumors or malformations of the vascular system (blood carriers), such as angiofibromas and hemangiomas, and benign tumors of the small salivary glands of the nasopharynx.

Treatment of this benign tumor (if necessary) differs from nasopharynx cancer tumors and is not discussed further in this document. If you have one of these tumors, you and your doctor will discuss the treatments that might suit you.

2. Nasopharyngeal Cancer. These tumors can attack the surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): This is the most common nasopharyngeal tumor. A carcinoma is cancer that begins in cell epithelial cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body. Most of the rest of this document refers to NPCs.

There are 3 types of NPCs, depending on how cancer cells are observed microscopically: keratinizing squamous carcinoma, non-keratinizing differentiation carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. Each of these types is seen more frequently in some parts of the world than in other countries. In southern China, where NPCs are much more common, almost all cases are not different. In the United States, where the NPC is rare, about 1 in 5 cases is a type of keratinization.

Although this type is different under a microscope, research shows that they are from the same cell type as the epithelial cells covering the surface of the nasopharynx. The treatment is usually the same for all types of NPCs. The stage of cancer to the extent that it has grown and spread is often more important than its type in predicting its prospects (prognosis).

Many NPCs also contain many cells of the immune system, especially lymphocytes. The term lymphoepithelioma is sometimes used to describe NPCs that do not differ with many lymphocytes between cancer cells. The presence of these cells generally does not affect the choice of treatment options. But they could be clues to develop new treatments because they could represent the body's efforts to "reject" the tumors. Lymphoma can sometimes start in the nasopharynx. These are cancers of the immune system cells called lymphocytes, which are found throughout the body, including the nasopharynx.

What Causes Nasopharynx Cancer

Nasopharynx cancer causes - What is nasopharynx cancer causes? Cancer begins when one or more genetic mutations cause the depletion of normal cells, the attack on the surrounding structures and eventually the spread (metastasis) to other parts of the body. In Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, this process begins in squamous cells that overlaid on the surface of the nasopharynx.

Scientists are not sure what is actually causing nasopharyngeal cancer. However, cancer has been strongly associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). Although the infection with EBV is common, not all individuals who have EBV to develop nasopharyngeal cancer. In the US, most people who have undergone an infection from EBV have never experienced long-term problems. Scientists are still investigating how EBN leads to nasopharyngeal cancer but may be related to the genetic material (DNA) of the virus that affects the DNA in the nasopharyngeal cells. DNA changes cause the growth and decay of the cells, causing cancer.

Exactly what causes gene mutation that causes nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unknown, although factors such as the Epstein Barr virus have been identified, which increase the risk of this cancer. However, it is not clear why some people with all risk factors do not develop cancer, while others do not have clear risk factors.

But what is clear, the risk for NPC is increased if you eat foods rich in fish and meat that are kept with salt. Tobacco and alcohol can also increase the risk, although their connection to the NPC is unclear. Some scientists believe that chemical substances in this case further damage the DNA in the cells.

What Are The Symptoms Of Nasopharynx Cancer

Nasopharynx cancer symptoms - What is nasopharynx cancer symptoms? Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States. It occurs much more often in other parts of the world especially in Southeast Asia. Nasopharyngeal cancer is difficult to detect at an early stage. It may be due to the fact that the nasopharyngeal is not easy to inspect and nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms are similar to other more common conditions.

In the early stages, nasopharyngeal cancer does not cause any symptoms. Clear symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma that can be a piece of neck due to lymph node swelling, swelling of the nose, sore throat, frequent ear infections, nasal congestion or ringing in the ears, hearing loss, blood in the aquatic saliva, and headache.

Remember, such symptoms are likely to happen easily to many other diseases and health conditions are much more serious than nasopharyngeal cancer. If you have any of the symptoms listed above, see your doctor or nurse. Only an experienced medical practitioner who can diagnose or rule out cancer with nasopharynx.

How is nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosed? Your doctor or nurse will ask you questions about your symptoms, history and family history, and perform a physical examination. This includes detailed impressions of your ears, nose, and throat. You may be sent to a physician who specializes in these areas, called otolaryngologist. Your doctor or nurse will feel your neck. The majority of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer have A neck. This suggests that cancer spreads to the lymph nodes.

You can place a flexible and shiny tube on the mouth or nose to help physicians in the nasopharynx better appearance. This is called a nasopharyngoscopy. This helps the doctor to investigate abnormal growth, bleeding or other problems.

If the assay is not normal, your doctor may recommend a biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of small amounts of tissue under the microscope. A biopsy can be performed during a nasopharyngoscopy. If there is a lump in the neck, a biopsy can be performed by placing a very thin and perforated needle in the knot.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

What is nasopharynx cancer treatment? Treatment (Possible recovery) and treatment options depend on the following: the stage of cancer (if it affects the part of the nasopharynx, involves all the nasopharynx or spread to other locations of the body). Types of nasopharyngeal cancer, tumor size, patient age, and general health.

Your cancer treatment team will recommend treatment options depending on the extent of cancer at the site of origin and how far cancer has spread if any. Nasopharynx Cancer (NPC) in children is treated primarily in the same way as NPCs in adults.

1. Steps 0 and I: the usual treatment for this early stage of cancer is radiation directed to nasopharyngeal tumors. Although cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes at this stage, the close lymph nodes in the neck are usually treated with radiotherapy as well. This is considered as preventive radiation (prophylaxis). Some patients may have cancerous cells in the lymph nodes that cannot be detected. Although very few cancerous cells in the lymph nodes make them increase, these cells can continue to grow and spread if they are not destroyed by radiotherapy.

2. Steps II, III, IVA, and IVB: This cancer has spread beyond the nasopharynx, which may mean the spread to the lymph nodes in the neck or above the clavicle. Patients with NPC stages usually receive Chemotherapy. The most commonly used chemotherapy (chemo) is cisplatin, but sometimes other drugs are also used. This is usually followed by more chemotherapy, most of the time with cisplatin plus 5-FU. Most studies have found that chemotherapy helps patients to live more than just radiotherapy. But the addition of chemotherapy causes more side effects, which can affect the quality of life. It is important to understand what side effects may occur before you start this treatment. If the cancer is still in the lymph nodes after this treatment, the surgery (cervical emptying) can be done to remove the lymph nodes.

3. Stage IVC: Nasopharynx cancer has spread to distant parts of the body and can be difficult to treat. The usual treatment is chemo, often with cisplatin and another drug. If there are no signs of cancer after chemotherapy, radiotherapy for the nasopharynx and lymph nodes of the neck or chemoradiotherapy is given to try to kill the remaining cancer cells. Another option in some cases is to give chemoradiotherapy as the first treatment.

If there are still signs of cancer after initial chemotherapy, other chemotherapeutic schemes that use different drugs can be tried. Chemotherapy plus cetuximab (Erbitux) targeted drugs may be another option. Because this cancer can be difficult to treat effectively, participating in new clinical trials can be a good choice.

4. Recurrent nasopharynx cancer. Cancer is called recurrence when it comes back after treatment. Relapse can be local or distant (spread to organs such as lungs or legs). If your cancer returns after treatment, the choices available on the place and extent of the cancer depend on the treatments used first and your overall health. Some recurrent tumors in the nasopharynx can be removed by surgery using a nasal approach. This is a special surgery that should only be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience in this procedure, so it is not available at all health centers.

Cancer of the nasopharynx symptoms - If cancer cannot be cured, further treatment may be focused on slowing down growth or decreasing symptoms caused by distant cancer propagation. For example, if cancer has spread to the spine, radiation therapy can be given to the area to relieve pain and reduce the risk of further complications. Although healing is not possible, it is important to remember that there are many options to alleviate the symptoms of advanced cancer.