Multiple Myeloma Cancer Survival Rate

Multiple myeloma cancer survival rate - Doctor often use the levels of survival as a way of standard discuss the prognosis of the person (Outlook). Some patient with cancer should know the statistics of survival for people in the same state, while others will not be able to help the numbers, or may not want to recognize them. If you decide you don't want them to know, stop reading here and turn on the skip to the courant so on.
Multiple Myeloma Cancer Survival Rate

"Life Median" means the period required for half of the than patient in this series died. By definition, half of the patient live longer than the survival median. It is important to remember that a median is just a kind of investigator. None who are "average" and many people have better results than the median.
See also: Multiple Myeloma Diagnosis
The frequency of survival is often based on the previous results a large number of people who are sick, but they can't foresee what will happen in terms of where-where a specific person. A lot of other factors that may harms your prognosis, such as age and health overall, maintainability and the extent to which cancer you act reply to the treatment. Doctorate you are familiar with your circumstances and can tell you how to act in the following figures.

Multiple Myeloma Cancer Survival Rate

The numbers below represent the survival of the median budget using the registration system of the international. The survival is measured from the point of view of treatment such as chemotherapy, for the first time began. Crowded patient, such as people who are lazy or relief myeloma and have a lot of time after diagnosis before treatment. In addition, the patient-the patient is treated from 5 to 25 years ago. Treatment since it has been increased by striking, and the result may be better.

What is multiple myeloma and who does it affect?

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a type of cancer of the blood that affects the plasma cells, a type of white globule that is located preferably in the bone marrow. It is cataloged within monoclonal gammopathies, a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an abnormal production of immunoglobulins and the appearance of tumors of plasma cells.

Plasma cells produce immunoglobulins (Ig), or antibodies, substances that circulate in the blood in order to defend the individual, attacking all foreign matter that enters the body. Each Ig consists of two heavy chains: gamma (IgG), alpha (IgA), mu (IgM), delta (IgD) or epsilon (IgE) and two light chains (kappa or delta).

Monoclonal gammopathies include a group of diseases characterized by the proliferation of clonal plasma cells that produce a single type of light and / or heavy chain (monoclonal component).

In multiple myeloma, plasma cells produce large amounts of a monoclonal Ig that can be detected in blood and / or urine. These Ig in excess interfere in diverse properties of the blood, in the normal operation of the kidneys, and favor the development of infections (since the Ig rest does not occur). In addition, excess plasma cells can injure bones that contain bone marrow (which causes bone pain and possible fractures) and displace normal cells in the bone marrow (which makes normal production of red blood cells, white blood cells And platelets).

Multiple myeloma is the most common plasma cell neoplasm. It affects predominantly the elderly, the average age being 65 years. Only 15% and 2% of patients are younger than 50 years and 40 years, respectively. In Spain, its annual incidence in adults is 40 new cases per million inhabitants per year, which represents 1% of all cancers and 10% of cancers of the blood.

Multiple Myeloma Cancer Survival Rate: Symptoms and Diagnosis

The main symptom is bone pain, which presents 75% of patients. They can appear in any location but the most frequent are those that start in the spine and in the ribs. Other possible manifestations of multiple myeloma are a consequence of lack of red blood cells (tiredness, weakness, palpitations, dizziness) or alteration of the normal functioning of platelets (easy bruising, bleeding of the nose or gums). In addition, there may be weight loss, frequent infections, bone fractures without an obvious cause and, occasionally, the appearance of true plasma cell tumors (plasmacytomas).
See also: Multiple Myeloma Bone Lesions Prognosis
80% of multiple myeloma patients have osteoporosis, osteolysis (when one or more areas of a bone are worn down and decreased), or bone fractures at the time of diagnosis. The most commonly affected regions are: the skull, spine, ribs, sternum, pelvis, and long bones such as the femur. One-fourth of patients with multiple myeloma present with renal failure at the time of diagnosis.

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is based on the demonstration of an abnormally high amount of a given immunoglobulin in the blood or urine and an excess of plasma cells in the bone marrow. To do this, various blood and bone marrow extractions (by puncture of the sternum or hip bone and aspiration with a syringe) must be performed. Similarly, 24-hour urine should be tested to assess whether abnormal immunoglobulin is present and in what amounts. Finally, x-rays of all skeletal bones should be done to see if they have been damaged by the disease. Other frequent analytical alterations in this disease are the increase of the creatinina (renal insufficiency) and the plasma calcium, anemia and moderate thrombocytopenia.

These findings are not always diagnostic of multiple myeloma. Thus, patients with a very moderate increase in immunoglobulins and plasma cells in the bone marrow, in the absence of any other data from the mentioned data, have an Unclear Monoclonal Gammopathy of Uncertainty (GMSI), a minor form of myeloma that represents 70% of the Monoclonal gammopathies, which usually remain stable for decades without requiring treatment. The probability of transformation of MSG to myeloma is 12%, 25% and 30% at 10, 20 and 25 years respectively.

Another minor form of myeloma is quiescent myeloma. These patients meet criteria for myeloma (due to increased immunoglobulins and plasma cells) but have no other clinical or analytical manifestations of the disease. These patients should not be treated if there is no progression of the disease, a progression that usually occurs 2-4 years after diagnosis.

Multiple Myeloma Treatment
There is now consensus that a patient with multiple myeloma should only be treated if any of the following symptoms exist: hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia or bone lesions. However, there are frequent clinical trials that evaluate new drugs applied in earlier phases of the disease, but outside the treatment is not indicated. In patients under 70 years of age, it will be based on classical intravenous chemotherapy, associated or not with one or more of the new agents (bortezomib, lenalinomide or thalidomide), followed by autologous transplantation ( Which has become part of the standard treatment of this disease). In patients over 70 years of age, treatment should be very personalized and may benefit from classic oral treatment regimens, which are also very effective and less toxic.

The aim of the treatment is always to slow the evolution of the disease and improve the symptoms since, unfortunately, none of them allows its cure. However, more than half of the patients achieve the disappearance of all symptoms (complete remission) or part of them (partial remission) with analytical alterations that can be kept under control for many months or years.

The only treatment of multiple myeloma with curative potential is the allogeneic transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors (from a compatible donor). Unfortunately, the advanced age of most patients and the high toxicity of the procedure make it rarely available. The best results are being obtained with a new modality of allogeneic transplantation much less toxic, transplants of reduced intensity. These transplants, especially when performed a few months after the initial autologous transplantation (tandem transplantation), and the patient in complete response, are delivering hopeful results.

Radiation therapy is (Etidronate, pamidronate, clodronate, celedronate) are agents that inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, cells responsible for the destruction of bone, And favor recalcification of the bone. Therefore, they are usually administered once a month and on an extended basis to all patients with myeloma.

Multiple Myeloma Prognosis
The prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma varies substantially depending on the age of the patient, the stage in the detection of the disease, the general condition of the patient, the presence of certain cytogenetic alterations, whether they have severe renal insufficiency and, Above all, whether they respond to treatment.

Before the chemotherapy was used, the average survival was about 7 months, but with the introduction of this, the prognosis improved significantly, giving an average survival of 3 to 5 years. This possibility increased considerably with the instruction of autogenic or autologous bone marrow transplantation in the therapeutic arsenal of myeloma. Although more than half of patients can achieve complete remission after chemotherapy treatment, with or without transplantation, relapses after one or two years are frequent and successive treatments offer shorter remission times.

At present, the use of new agents such as bortezomib, lenalinomide or thalidomide in first-line or rescue treatment regimens has considerably increased the duration of responses.